Samsunun İngilizce Tanıtımı
Samsun, is a city in Turkey on the Black Sea and capital of Samsun province. It is about 200 miles (322 km) northwest of Ankara. Samsun is an important commercial center and is Turkey’s second most important tobacco port. It also exports grain, wool, and hides and manufactures cigarettes.
Athenian Greeks from Miletus founded a colony in 562 b. c., calling it Amisus. Romans conquered it in the 1st century b. c., and it later passed to the Byzantine Empire. In the late 11th century Amisus was besieged by the Turks who, failing to take it, built the stronghold of Samsun 1.5 miles (2.5 km) to the southeast. Christian Amisus and Muslim Samsun stood side by side until 1425, when the Ottomans marched on Amisus. Genoese traders in Amisus set the city on fire and fled by ship. It was never rebuilt. Samsun kept its importance until the Russian annexation of the Crimea in 1783 cut off its most important source of trade.
The city was rebuilt after a disastrous fire in 1869, and its commerce revived with the development of steam navigation. In 1919, Kemal Atatiirk landed at Samsun on his way to the interior to organize resistance to the Greek invasion. An equestrian statue commemorates his landing.
The province, with an area of 3,626 square miles (9,391 sq km), has a fertile coastal strip, which widens at the river mouths, backed by the rugged, wooded Canik Mountains. The province produces the highest quality tobacco in Turkey.
Samsun Samsun's ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters has attracted numerous trade interests. Greek colonists settled in the 6th century BC and established a flourishing trade relationship with the Anatolians. At that time, Samsun was part of the Greek colony of Amisus. In the 3rd century BC, Samsun came under the expanded rule of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Kingdom of Pontus had been part of the empire of Alexander the Great. However, the empire was fractured soon after Alexander's death in the 4th century BC. At its height, the kingdom controlled the north of central Anatolia and mercantile towns on the northern Black Sea shores.
SamsunThe Romans took over in 47 BC, and were replaced by the Byzantines after the fall of Rome. In 1200 Samsun was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the İlhanlılar. Samsun was incorporated into the network of Genoese trading posts and was taken by the Ottomans in the beginning of the 15th century. Before leaving, the Genoese razed the town.
Ataturk founded the Turkish republic movement at Samsun and it served as its base during the Turkish War of Independence.
For more details on this topic, see Turkish War of Independence.
The city is a Roman Catholic titular see.
Samsun is situated between two river deltas which jut into the Black Sea. It is located at the end of an ancient route from Cappadocia: the Amisos of antiquity lay on the headland northwest of the modern city. To Samsun's west, lies the Kızılırmak ("Red River", the Halys of antiquity), one of the longest rivers in Anatolia and its fertile delta. To the east, lie the Yeşilırmak ("Green River", the Iris of antiquity) and its delta.
Terme river, Yeşilırmak, Aptal river, Mert river, Kürtün river, Kızılırmak
Akgöl, Dumanlı, Semenlik
Samsun has a humid, temperate, marine climate with cool winters and warm summers and high rainfall throughout the year.
Samsun is an important Turkish trade centre and the most important port on the Black Sea coast. Samsun is one of the major Turkish tobacco producing provinces. In the later Ottoman period the land around the town mainly produced tobacco. The town was connected to the railway system in the second half of the 19th century, and tobacco trade boomed. The Çarşamba Valley and the Bafra Valley offer possibilities for farming.
A concern of automotive industries is located in Samsun.
The University of Samsun (19 Mayis Üniversitesi) is one of the seven best universities of Turkey. Moreover the city has colleges, 58 grammar schools, 1.048 primary schools, and public libraries.
Places to see
Kultur Sarayi (Palace of Culture). Concerts and other performances are held at the Kultur Sarayi, which is shaped much like a ski jump.
Archaeological and Atatürk Museum. The archaeological part of the museum displays ancient artifacts found in the Samsun area. The Atatürk section includes photographs of his life and some personal belongings. The museum is open from 8:30 till 12:00 and from 14:00 till 17:00.
The Russian Market (Rus Pazari).
Statue of Atatürk. By Austrian sculptor Heinz Kriphel, from 1928 to 1931.
Atatürk (Gazi) Museum. It houses Atatürk's bedroom, his study and conference room as well some personal belongings.
Pazar Mosque, Samsun's oldest surviving building, a mosque built by the Ilhanid Mongols in the 13th century.
Karadağ Geçidi (Karadag Pass) (at an altitude of 940 metres). The landscape, on the way to Amasya.
Kaynaklar: nkfu.com, forumsal.net